Wednesday, March 30, 2011

ACCA Pakistan Learning Providers Forum

ACCA Pakistan Learning Providers Forum

As part of ACCA's continued efforts to develop excellence in
professional accounting education and establish best practices amongst
tertiary accounting education providers, ACCA Pakistan organised
"Learning Providers Forum" on 30 March 2011 at Best Western Hotel
Islamabad. Dr Afra Sajjad, Head of Education and Policy Development of
ACCA Pakistan was the forum facilitator.

The participants were faculty members of ACCA Approved Learning
Partners (ALP) and tuition providers in Pakistan. The participants
appreciated efforts of ACCA Pakistan in enhancing the capacity of the
ALP faculty members. They were of the opinion that such forums are
useful and relevant to their work as it enables them to learn new
teaching skills and provide them a platform to share their opinions
and challenges.
Speaking the forum:-
Dr Afra Sajjad, Head of Education and Policy Development, ACCA
Pakistan stated that tutors should take right steps from the planning
stage in order to deliver an exam-focused course. She said that tutors
should think ahead that how assignments and progress tests may be used
to maintain exam focus during syllabus coverage to help marginal
students succeed in their final exams. She added that these forums
display ACCA Pakistan's commitment to faculty development of ACCA
tuition providers in Pakistan.

The forum also featured a discussion forum "Professional Accounting
Education: Achieving Par Excellence". The Panel discussion was
moderated by Habiba Zaidi, Education Executive ACCA Pakistan and the
panelists included Mr Salahuddin, Principal ACCA, The Professionals'
Academy of Commerce, Ms Izzat Jahan, Director - Audit & Accounts
Training, Department of the Auditor General of Pakistan, Mr Adnan Ali,
Head of Web Strategy, Vopium and Dr Afra Sajjad, Head of Education and
Policy Development, ACCA Pakistan.
The aim of the discussion forum was to provide a common platform to
ACCA tuition providers, employers and IT experts for discussing the
existing and emerging teaching practices that nurture talent and are
aligned to the industry's business model. Another interesting aspect
in discussion was the perspective on how IT and social media can be
leveraged for innovating education practices.


*Husnain Rasheed*
Guest Service Officer | Pearl Continental , Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam, Lahore-
54000, Pakistan
Cell: +92 321 4193732 | Tel: +92 42 6360210 | UAN: +92 42 111505505 | Fax:
+92 42 6362698
E-mail: | URL: | Corporate URL:
*P** save a tree. Please print this e-mail only if it is really

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Paper 1.1 Chap:5

Paper 1.1
Chapter 5
The Accounting Concepts - Part 4 (Historical Cost Accounting vs. CPP vs. CCA)

Traditionally, accounts were prepared to fulfill the needs of the owners of the business
and to assist the managers’ for the business to make decisions about the future.
Yet, it was later made clear that the accounts prepared under the historical cost
convention provided misleading information because of the inability to reflect the
changing price levels.


1. When property appreciates in value, the historical cost convention which values it
at its purchase cost, wouldn’t reflect its true and fair value. This means that unrealized
holding gains are not recognized until the period in which the asset is realized, rather
than spread over the period during which it was owned.
2. Depreciation based on a Fixed Assets Historical Cost may be inadequate to
finance the replacement of the Fixed Asset if the appreciation in value is larger than
the depreciation charged!
3. Furthermore, the depreciation charge wouldn’t fully reflect the value of the asset
consumed during the accounting period.
4. The following example applies to stock appreciation during a period of inflation.
During Inflation No Inflation
Sales (100 Units) $ 500 $ 500
Less: Cost of Sales
Opening Stock (100 Units) $ 200 $ 200
Purchases (100 Units) $ 200 $ 200
Closing Stock (100 Units) ($300) ($100) ($200) ($200)

Gross Profit $ 400 $ 300

Basically, the trading account above compares the gross profit of a certain company at
two different accounting periods, one being inflationary whilst the other excludes
inflation. At the beginning of the year the trader had 100 units of stock at a cost of
$200, during the year the trader purchased 100 units at a cost of $200, and at the
year end, the Historical Cost of the 100 units remaining after the sale of $100 units is
$300 due to the appreciation in stock, and thus, inflating profit by $100.

5. HCA ignores any holding gains or losses of net monetary items during a period of
a change in prices/
6. The effect of inflation on capital maintenance is not known. Capital maintenance
is the amount of sufficient retained profit to ensure that the net assets at the end of
a period are at least equal to those at the beginning of the period. I.e. to keep the
capital intact.

As a result of all the previous examples, one can see that over time, the inability of the
HCA to account for changes in price level means that one cannot obtain realistic, true
and a fair view of the company’s accounts from one period to another.

Reasons for Continued Use

1. Easier and cheaper to record transactions, and analyze them based on their HC.
2. The figures are easy to obtain and they are objective and readily verifiable, being
tied to actual transactions, whereas other methods seem to be subjective.
3. HC is easier to understand and users are aware of its limitations.
4. Since revaluations of fixed assets are permitted, the problems associated with
understating the value of property are avoided.

The Current Purchasing Power
The use of the CPP means that the profit for the year is calculated after an adjustment
designed to reflect the effect of general price inflation on the purchasing power of
equity shares. In other words, if you refer back to the example concerning the
appreciation in the price level of the closing stock, you’d find, that previously, $200
would be adequate to purchase 100 units of stock, whereas, now, the 100 units cost
$300 to purchase, thus the purchasing power has dropped by $100, or by 1/3rd.

The Current Cost Accounting

This method of accounting doesn’t attempt to cater for general prince inflation, instead,
profit for the year is to be calculated after allowing for the effects of price increases,
specifically on the operating capability of the particular business.

a) In other words, assets are stated at current value, which is what we do when we
revalue property.
b) Holding gains are excluded from profit in the P&L. how?

Paper 1.1 Chap:4

Paper 1.1
Chapter 4
The Accounting Concepts - Part 3 (Why does the ASB hate Prudence?)

Through time and age, men always seemed to be in contradiction with women, and
that’s how it is with Accruals and Prudence. The puzzled look on every man’s mind
when the lady asks “Do I look fat?” is very similar to that of an accountant, when
asked “Should we report the worst possible situation, prudence? Or the most likely
position, matching?!”

On a more serious note,

1. Prudence is in a conflict with the going concern concept because it may not be
prudent to assume that the business is a going concern.
2. Furthermore, prudence makes it difficult to treat items consistently because at one
period, an item may require different treatment than it did in a previous period.
E.g. prior year adjustments.
3. The prudence concept also contradicts the objectivity concept in that it requires
subjective judgment in prudent situations.
4. It is also difficult to value assets at anything but the historical cost convention
because it wouldn’t be prudent to recognize a gain in revaluation for example.
Seems short, and incomplete doesn’t it? Well any suggestions are welcomed.

Paper 1.1 Chap:3

Paper 1.1
Chapter 3

The Accounting Concepts - Part 2 (The Statement of Principles)

The accounting concepts and conventions are based on years of practice and
judgment. But that doesn’t necessarily mean that they are fool-proof. FRS 18
recognizes this fact, and it provided us with a conceptual framework to base our
accounting standards on. In the previous paper I have explained some of the
accounting concepts which we may have to deal with day in day out, but there are only
two accounting standards that have been emphasized by FRS 18, which are Going
Concern, and the Accruals Concept.

The conceptual framework mentioned above is the theoretical basis for determining
which events should be accounted for, how they should be measured and how they
should be communicated to the user.

Yet, prior to the ASB’s release of the Statements of Principles, the lack of a conceptual
framework created some of the following problems,

1. Fundamental principles were tackled more than once in different standards, which
have caused contradictions, ambiguity and as a result, affected the true & fair
view of Financial Reporting.
2. In the USA for example, the highly detailed number of standards created a set of
rules rather than general principles.

As a result, a basis now exists for reducing the no. of alternative accounting treatments
permitted by accounting standards and company law. Furthermore, the problems
tackled or associated due to the lack of a conceptual framework are now avoided.

Although, many argue that the release of the statement of principles doesn’t
necessarily make things easier or clearer for its users, but I believe that a future
framework for the development of accounting standards now exist, and auditors may
now confirm whether financial statements are based on accountancy standards or not.

The BPP, suggests, that the end-result of the Statement of Principles is that Objectivity
now exists, which decreases the scope of manipulation. Uniformity means that there’s
less scope for disagreement between current conventions and new ones, and finally
Familiarity means that the more people use the accounts, the more they’ll get used to

Paper 1.1 Chap:2

Paper 1.1
Chapter 2

The Accounting Concepts – Part 1 (The Summary)

Just a basic summary of those little things that we always tend to forget.
The Going Concern Concept implies that a business is a going concern, i.e. that
there is no reason to expect the liquidation of assets. Thus, the business may be
valued at its historical, or current cost, rather than its break-up or replacement
value. A further example to illustrate the application of the Going Concern concept,
may be clearly seen, when stock is valued. It is a practice to value stock at the lower
of its net realizable value or cost of purchase, this is because the going concern
concept implies that the stock is held to be sold at a future date.

The Accruals Concept is based on several ‘ideas’ or practices, which may be clearly
illustrated, if summarized in the following form:

1. Revenue and Costs must be recognized as they are earned or incurred.
2. Revenues must be matched with costs, and vice versa, and dealt with in the profit
and loss account of the period to which they relate.

It is for this reason, that we actually disclose the value of the creditors in the Balance
Sheet, and the value of debtors. Furthermore, although we may have paid rent of
BD 1000, for the next two years for example, we may only note the amount relevant
to this year’s profit and loss account, and the remaining balance, as a prepayment in
the Balance Sheet.

Furthermore, this is the reason why it is required to account for sales and purchases
when made, even though on credit, rather than when they are paid for.

As well as this, the figure for closing stock is also deducted from the figure of
purchases because the figure of closing stock relates to the opening stock figure of
next year’s accounts.

The Prudence Concept

1. a) Where there are alternative procedures
b) Or alternative valuations
c) The one selected should be the one which gives the most cautious
presentation of the business’s financial position or results.

2. a) Revenues and profits are not anticipated but are related to the period in
which they occur. E.g. when a sale is made.
b) Provision is made for all known expenses or losses whether these are known
for certain or just estimates.

What definition means in layman’s terms is simply, if the company is in doubt about
an expense or a liability that it may have, it should create a provision for it
immediately, and if the company anticipates any future gains or profits, from a future
sale for example, it should ignore it, unless realized.


1. Provisions for Bad & Doubtful Debts
2. Stock should be valued at the lower of net realizable value or cost

Sales Revenue could be realized, if the following circumstances apply:

1. The transaction is for a specific quantity of goods at a known price.
2. The sales transaction is completed or it is known for certain that it will be
3. Cash is received for a purchase, or it is virtually certain that cash will eventually be

Consistency Concept states that similar items within a single set of accounts, should
be similarly accounted for, and that they are treated the same from one period to

The Entity concept states that a business must be regarded as a separate entity
distinct from its owners or managers.

Money Measurement, states that accounts will only deal with those items to which a
monetary value can be attributed, which means that subject matter such as staff is

Separate Valuation Principle refers to the amount/cost attributable to an asset /
liability, since the valuation should deal with each component separately. E.g. an
independent valuation should be obtained for each item of stock, and their net
realizable values should then be aggregated to obtain the total value of stock.

The Materiality Concept refers to the following:

Only items material in amount or in their nature affect the true & fair view given by a
set of accounts. In other words, immaterial items are not paid that much attention.
But this is obviously based on a subjective judgment in deciding whether an item is
immaterial or not. Either way, the amount of the item and its context must be

Historical Cost Convention states that transactions should be recorded at their cost.

Stable Monetary Unit states that the Financial Statements must be expressed in
terms of a monetary unit, e.g. $.

Objectivity Concept states that accounts must be free from bias or subjectivity as
much as possible.

Time Interval, states that the activities of an entity must be split up into blocks of time,
e.g. daily, monthly or annually.

Substance Over Form, refers to a transaction in two distinct ways, ‘subject’ and
‘form’. Thus, the transaction should be accounted for and presented in accordance
with their economic ‘substance’ not their legal ‘form’. E.g. assets required on a hire
purchase are not legally owned by the buyer even though the substance of the
transaction refers to the buyer as the owner.

The Realization Concept states that revenues and profits are recognized when they
are realized. Basically the Realization Concept refers the question of when does an
entity realize a profit or a gain?
Simply, revenue may be recognized at the point of sale, when the following
conditions are satisfied:

1. The product or service has been provided to the buyer
2. The buyer recognized his liability to pay for the goods
3. The ownership of the goods has passed from the seller to the buyer.
4. The buyer has indicated his willingness to pay.
5. The monetary value of the goods has been established.

Revenue or profits may also be recognized at other situations even if a sale hasn’t
been established, such as:

1. Longterm Contracts, where profits/revenues are recognized when the production
on a section of the total contract is complete, rather than when the entire project is
2. Retail & Hire Purchase, where an actual sale isn’t made unless the buyer finishes
all of his installments. In this case, profit would be the interest added to the cost of
the asset sold.

Paper 1.1 Chap:1

Paper 1.1
Chapter 1

The Definition, Purpose, and the Regulatory Framework of Accounting

Well, this report isn’t an introduction to accounting as it may seem to be. It’s more like

a summary to the purpose of studying paper 1.1 .

Accounting is a way of recording, analyzing, and summarizing transactions of a

Transactions are recorded in books of prime entry, and then analyzed and posted to
the ledgers and finally they are summarized in the financial statements.

Yet, the term ‘Accounting’ not only refers to Financial Accounting, but moreover,

a) Management Accounting
b) Financial Management
c) Auditing

The Purpose, of going through the process of preparing financial statements, may not
be required or needed by most companies, yet some must comply to do so by law.
Nonetheless, they are prepared so that owners, managers, lenders and other
interested parties can see how the business is doing. In other words, to provide
information about the financial position, performance and financial adaptability of an
enterprise that is useful to a wide range of users.

Depending on the users of financial statements, many may require access to different
information, but all share some basic needs. Some of the basic users of financial and
accounting information are:

a) Managers
b) Shareholders
c) Trade contacts
d) Providers of Finance
e) Governments and their Agencies, e.g. Inland Revenue and Registrar of
f) Employees
g) Financial Analysts and Advisors
h) Investors/ Public

As one may imagine, it may be very hard to satisfy all of the different users, yet, the
basic financial statements at the end of the day, are:

a) The Profit and Loss Account
b) The Balance Sheet

Furthermore, some companies may be required to produce annual reports, which
contain :

Non-Financial Statements, such as:
a) Director’s Report
b) Auditors’ Report
c) Chairman’s Report

Limited companies are required by law to prepare and publish accounts annually. The
form and content of the accounts are regulated primarily by the Companies Act 1985,
but must also comply with accounting standards.

The Regulatory System

Basically the Company Law requires that all companies must comply with the
Companies Act. Of the many requirements and regulations, it must be brought to one’
s attention, that the Financial Statements are required to represent a True and Fair
view of the state of affairs and Profit and Loss.

The Accounting Standard’s Board, previously known as the Accounting Standard’s
Committee, has issued the Accounting Standards, such as FRS’s and SSAP’s. The
accounting standards were developed with the aim of narrowing the areas of
difference and variety in accounting practice.

The Urgent Issues task force is an important part of the ASB in that it is required to
tackle urgent matters not covered by existing standards. The review panel, is
concerned with the examination and questioning of departures from accounting
standards by large companies.

Furthermore, the companies are required to follow the Accounting Policies, set out in
FRS 18 and the Companies’ Act. Those policies, are summarized in the diagram
above, but it must be noted that there is a distinction between the accounting policies
and accounting estimates.

The accounting policy is concerned with:

a) the recognition
b) Selection of measurement base and
c) Presentation

Of assets, liabilities, gains and losses of an entity. E.g. ‘Prudence or Accruals’? The
choice must be based on which may provide the most true and fair view.

The accounting estimate is the method used to establish the monetary value of
assets, liabilities, gains and losses using the measurement base selected by the
accounting policy,
e.g. depreciation (straight line or reducing balance?)

The ASB also developed a Statement of Principles, which is concerned by:

a) the objective of financial statements
b) the reporting entity
c) The qualitative characteristics of financial information.

Basically the statement of principles provided a Conceptual Framework, which forms
the theoretical basis for determining which events should be accounted for, how they
should be measured and how they should be communicated to the user. A conceptual
framework is a statement of generally accepted theoretical principles, which form the
frame of reference for financial reporting. These theoretical principles provide the
basis for the development of new reporting standards and the evaluation of those
already in existence. In other words, they are there to provide consistency, clarity and

Furthermore, companies are required to comply with the regulations of the European
union, and various international bodies, and any stock exchange requirements
depending on their circumstances.

In addition to the Financial Statements, limited companies are required to provide
certain notes and disclosures to the accounts, such as:

1. Statement of movements in reserves
2. Details of Fixed Assets
3. Details of post balance sheet events
4. Details of contingent liabilities and contingent assets
5. Details of research and development expenditure.
6. Statement of total recognized gains and losses.
7. Note on historical cost profits and losses.

The following are the important features of Financial Statements

1- Relevance 3-Reliability 5-Objectivity 7-Comparability
2-Comprehensibility 4-Completeness 6-Timeliness

The Qualitative Characteristics of Financial Statements

a) Relevance – Info that has the ability to influence decisions, Predictive Value,
Confirmatory Value.
b) Reliability – Info that is complete and faithful representation. Free from material
error, faithful representation, neutral, complete, and prudence.

a) Comparability – similarities and differences can be discerned and evaluated.
Consistency and Disclosure.
b) Understandability – the significance of the information can be perceived. Users’
abilities, Aggregation and classification.

Thursday, March 10, 2011

10 Reasons to study for the ACCA

10 Reasons to study for the ACCA

1. Cost-effective

A cost effective and efficient way to increase knowledge and professionalism. Candidates not only gain specialist knowledge in finance and accounting, but also acquire valuable skills in organisational management and strategy. It therefore increases the career prospects of the employee and reduces the training costs of the employer.

2. Comprehensive

Comprehensively covers the technical and management skills accountants are expected to master. Refined for 2007, the ACCA Qualification will help achieve the range of competences required in a finance team. The ACCA syllabus is a comprehensive program in financial management skills.

The ACCA Qualification takes the candidate to advanced levels in a variety of subjects such as:
* Management Decision Making
* Financial Reporting
* Financial Strategies.

The ACCA Qualification is not just theory - the exams are practical case studies.

3. Effective in finding business solutions

Organisations benefit from having accountancy professionals who understand the financial needs of business and who can evaluate and present effective business solutions.

The qualification equips finance professionals with knowledge and skills which are diverse yet dynamic - the curriculum includes tax, audit and business law as well as the core accountancy subjects.

4. Measure of competence

The ACCA combines the benefits of traditional accounting skills with a wide ranging and forward looking syllabus, which recognises that finance professionals are increasingly required to demonstrate strategic thinking, excellent communication skills, people skills and fluency with information technology.

5. Flexible

The ACCA Qualification has flexible entry requirements, and offers flexible study options, enabling studies to be planned around business needs.

6. Practical Experience

One of the requirements of the ACCA program is practical experience, because the ACCA realises that employers require an increased focus on an individual’s workplace performance.

7. Based on International standards

The Qualification is based on international accounting and auditing standards and is IFAC compliant

8. Truly Global

The ACCA is the only truly global accountancy qualification with members in 170 countries. A global program that tracks the needs of industry and employers .

9. Recognition worldwide

The ACCA has achieved strong recognition worldwide by building relationships with influential organisations including:
* local and multinational companies
* accounting bodies
* educational institutions
* governments
* entities such as the United Nations and the World Bank.

10. Professional status

Globally, employers and business partners understand and respect the qualification. ACCA members are in demand for their finance and accounting knowledge and skills worldwide...


ew suite of awards to offer maximum flexibility and maximum employability

ACCA has launched Foundations in Accountancy, a new flexible suite of entry-level awards, designed to meet the needs of both students and employers.

Foundations in Accountancy was created after detailed consultation with employers, learning providers, members, students and other professional accountancy bodies and regulators.

Foundations in Accountancy provides a solid grounding in financial and management accounting, and includes a module in professionalism and ethical behaviour.

The awards include:

  • Introductory Certificate in Financial and Management Accounting
  • Intermediate Certificate in Financial and Management Accounting
  • Diploma in Accounting and Business
  • Certified Accounting Technician Qualification (CAT), which includes specialist papers and work experience in audit, tax and financial management.

'With Foundations in Accountancy, students will benefit from the flexible range of entry points, meaning they can begin at the right level for them, and then progress through the awards,' said Alan Hatfield, ACCA's director of learning. 'And when it comes to flexibility, they can complete qualifications in their own time, selecting those which best suit their own career needs and aspirations.'

Foundations in Accountancy also sees certification awarded at each level, helping students to monitor their progress, and helping employers to recruit and train to meet their own business needs. The practical content means that the knowledge students gain is directly applied to the workplace, offering immediate benefits to existing and prospective employers.

'Increasingly, employers need to know that they are taking on competent employees in account-support roles, often referred to as an accounting technician role,' continued Hatfield. 'Employers can be assured that Foundations in Accountancy will train individuals to high standards, and that their training will be recognised all over the world.

'With Foundations in Accountancy, employers can also be assured that candidates have the right professional and ethical skills that are required in the workplace in a junior accounting or technician role. The syllabuses span the key elements of financial and management accounting at all levels offered, and also include an Accountant in Business exam at the Diploma level, which puts students' new knowledge into a legal, economic and regulatory context.

'Through Foundations in Accountancy, ACCA continues to provide opportunities for talented people, whatever their background or prior learning, to progress to become a professional accountant..

Monday, March 7, 2011

Maximizing people power – the finance function under pressure

Maximizing people power – the finance function under pressure

· Securing the right talent is one of the biggest challenges faced by Chief Finance Officers
· Finance Business Partnering is the way ahead to gain competitive advantage

The training, development and retention of the finance function is crucial to the success of an organisation, especially in the current economic climate, asserts a new report from ACCA (the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants) and KPMG, UK called Maximising People Power: Effective talent management in finance.

The report emphasises that securing the right talent is one of the biggest challenges faced by Chief Finance Officers (CFOs), adding that the finance function must now take the opportunity to make a difference to their organisations' success – whether in the public or private sector, whether in a listed multinational or small and medium sized enterprise.

Ian Lithgow, partner, KPMG, UK says: "The next decade presents a critical opportunity for finance professionals to help create and sustain long term value for organisations. But the challenge lies with employers to realise and leverage talent within their finance function."

Arif Masud Mirza, Head of ACCA Pakistan adds: "Last year we found that only 20 per cent of organisations had a talent strategy for their finance team. We found that most talent management strategies weren't strategic at all – they were informal, sometimes run in isolation of other departments and not part of a wider integrated plan. This cannot continue."

The report says that the responsibility lies with CFOs to establish and maintain great talent practices. Any plans they may have for restructuring the finance function must include a talent management plan that addresses the skills, capabilities and experience levels that are needed.

The report also suggests eight key components for CFOs that are facing this challenge:

· Define talent – Organisations need to identify what talent looks like – the key skills and behaviours that finance professionals must have to deliver the organisational strategy.
· Identify recruitment and talent needs – Organisations should look at both the long and short term needs of the business and the finance function, recruit from within and without the function, and bring individuals into finance who have an established business or commercial understanding.
· Define the competencies needed – The next step is to consider what technical, business and behavioral competencies are needed.
· Target development – Some finance roles will be more critical to the organisation than others. Junior roles can be as critical as more senior ones.
· Offer comprehensive learning – Leading organisations offer a comprehensive range of learning and development activities, which can be selected to suit the needs of the individual. Organisations are increasingly using Finance Academies to provide structured and consistent training.
· Structure career paths – Organisations must develop career paths for finance personnel that enable them to reach and aspire.
· Use performance management and reward – Align this to the overall organisational strategy, with rewards linked to individual achievements.
· Review regularly – The whole talent framework needs to be assessed on an ongoing basis to ensure it continues to meet the requirements of the wider organisation and the finance function itself.

The report also says that there is an increased demand for the relatively new role of the Finance Business Partner (FBP) – the highly commercial accountant who applies their core technical knowledge to business issues and provides the much needed finance lens on organisational decision making.

Arif Masud Mirza concludes: "Talent management is broader than the individual; it is about managing aspirations and bringing a diverse range of talents together across the organisation for the benefit of the business; it is about boosting the finance function's credibility both internally and externally. There are tremendous opportunities ahead of us, and our experience tells us that those organisations who put talent at the heart of their finance function gain competitive advantage."


Noorulain Zafer
Marketing Officer
ACCA Pakistan
Office No 5 2nd Floor SNC Centre Fazal-Ul-Haq Road Blue Area Islamabad

tel: +92 (0)51 111 22 22 75
fax: +92 (0)51 287 6605
mob: +92 (0)300 850 3167<>

Accountants for business - creating sustainable value<>
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